What is Hajj Ifrad, Qiran and Tamattu’

Question:

What do Ifrad, Qiran, and Tamattu’ mean in the context of Hajj, and which type of Hajj is considered the best?

Answer:

All praise is due to Allah ﷻ, and peace and blessings be upon our master, the Messenger of Allah, and upon his family and companions.

Meaning of Hajj Ifrad, Qiran, and Tamattu’:

There are three ways to perform the rituals of Hajj: Ifrad, Qiran, and Tamattu’.

  1. Ifrad: According to some scholars, such as the Shafi’is, Ifrad means performing Hajj before Umrah. This is done by entering the state of Ihram for Hajj at the Miqat, completing the Hajj rituals, and then exiting Makkah to the nearest place outside the Haram to enter Ihram for Umrah and perform its rituals. This method is best suited for those living withing the Miqat boundaries.
  2. Qiran: Qiran involves combining both Hajj and Umrah in one Ihram. The pilgrim either enters Ihram with the intention of performing both Hajj and Umrah or starts with Ihram for Umrah and then includes Hajj before completing the Umrah rituals. In both cases, the pilgrim performs the rituals of both Hajj and Umrah together.
  3. Tamattu’: Tamattu’ means performing Umrah during the months of Hajj, then exiting the state of Ihram, and later re-entering Ihram for Hajj. This method is called Tamattu’ because the pilgrim benefits from being able to exit Ihram between the two rituals.

Ruling on Combining Umrah with Hajj: It is not permissible to combine Umrah with Hajj by entering Ihram for Hajj and then adding Umrah to it, as this does not offer any benefit. In contrast, in Qiran, when Hajj is combined with Umrah, the pilgrim benefits from the same Ihram for standing at Arafat, stoning the Jamarat, and spending the night at Muzdalifah.

Ruling on Sacrifice for Hajj Ifrad: A person performing Hajj Ifrad is not required to offer a sacrifice (Dam). However, they may do so voluntarily. In contrast, those performing Hajj Tamattu’ must offer a Dam because they do not enter Ihram from their home country. Instead, they enter Ihram from Makkah. If they had performed Hajj Ifrad, they would have entered Ihram from their home Miqat.

Conditions for the Obligatory Sacrifice in Tamattu’: For the obligatory sacrifice in Tamattu’, the pilgrim must not be a resident of the Haram area, which includes those living within approximately 84 kilometers of the Haram. According to the preferred opinion, the sacrifice becomes obligatory if the pilgrim enters Ihram for Umrah during the months of Hajj and performs Hajj in the same year without returning to the Miqat or entering Ihram from another Miqat. If they return to the Miqat to enter Ihram for Hajj, the Dam is not required, as the benefit of not returning to the Miqat is lost.

Virtue among the Three Types: Scholars have different opinions on which type of Hajj is most virtuous:

  • According to the Maliki and Shafi’i schools, Ifrad is the most virtuous.
  • Malikis consider Qiran to be the second most virtuous, followed by Tamattu’.
  • Shafi’is believe Tamattu’ is second in virtue, followed by Qiran.
  • The Hanafi school considers Qiran to be the most virtuous, followed by Tamattu’ and then Ifrad.
  • Hanbalis believe Tamattu’ is the most virtuous, followed by Ifrad and then Qiran.

Advice: In matters where scholars differ, one can follow the opinion of any recognized scholar. It is advisable to choose the method that is easiest for you, as Hajj is a physically and mentally demanding act of worship. Choosing the easier method will help you conserve your energy and strength to perform Hajj in the best possible manner.

Allah ﷻ knows best.

This Fatwa is written by Dr.Hafiz Muhammad Munir Al-Azhari

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