What do the scholars and experts of shari’ah say regarding my situation? I have missed fasts from last Ramadan which I still need to make up. However, a year has passed and it is Ramadan again. What should I do?
It is wajib to make up any missed fasts from the month of Ramadan. Even though it is permissible to delay in completing these missed fasts. The majority (jamhur) of scholars have said it is wajib to complete them prior to the arrival of the following Ramadan. The evidence for this is the narration of Sayyida Aisha who states: “I had missed fasts from the month of Ramadan which I needed to make up. I was unable to do so until the month of Sha’ban as I was busy with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
If one delays making up their missed fasts with no valid excuse, such that the next Ramadan enters, then they will be considered sinful. The person will now have to perform the qadha fast and pay fidya. The fidya will be feeding a meal to poor person for each fast missed. Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, and Abu Hurayra have all mentioned that a qadha and fidya for each missed fast is necessary if the a year passes and Ramadan enters again.
According to an opinion from the ahnaf and the hanabila, there is no restriction as to when the missed fasts should be completed by. If a person has fasts that are too be made up, but Ramadan has also entered, then the fasts of Ramadan will be completed first. There will be no fidya necessary for missed fasts either based on the generality of the qur’anic command: “…then let them fast an equal number of days.” (Surah al-Baqarah: 184)
And Allah ﷻ knows the best
This fatwa is written by Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Munir Al-Azhari